Springfield Ohio History


From the Springfield City Directory for 1852

SPRINGFIELD, the seat of justice for Clark county, is pleasantly situated on the national road, and on the south side of Buck creek about a mile from its junction with Mad river, and is forty-two miles west of Columbus; 134 southwest from Sandusky city, to which it is connected by the Mad river and Lake Erie railroad; and 84 miles northeast from Cincinnati, to which it has access by two railroads -- the Little Miami and the Dayton and Cincinnati railroads. It has also telegraphic communication by means of the O’Reilly and Morse lines with all the eastern cities, and the most important places in the United States and Canada. Its water privileges for manufacturing are abundant; and already the water power furnished by Buck creek and Mill run has been greatly improved by the erection of a large number of factories, mills and machine shops. Its building resources are unlimited. There are several limestone quarries on the banks of Buck creek which supply stone and lime in great quantities; and the surrounding country affords much of the timber, such as oak, walnut, ash and poplar, necessary in building. Its means of moral and intellectual improvement have developed themselves in the number of its churches, of which there are now twelve; in its institutions of learning, such as a college, an academy, a female seminary and a number of common schools; an extensive reading room, at which various newspapers and periodicals throughout the Union are received. Besides, there are three printing offices, from which papers are issued; a general carrier of Cincinnati daily papers, and two book stores that furnish a general assortment of standard and miscellaneous works. Springfield is also supplied with a very good tri-weekly market, where all the luxuries of the surrounding country can be obtained. Few inland towns excel this place in the amount of their business transactions, as is manifested in the number of the different establishments, stores, shops and warehouses. These are some of the present advantages and prospects of this city, and we now propose to notice a few facts connected with its early history.

Fifty-three years ago the site now occupied by this city was covered with forest trees, hazel and plum thickets, and small undergrowth. The little rivulet, Mill run, which now divides the town into two parts, wended its course through the beautiful forests until its waters united with those of Buck creek. The soil for some distance on the southern and western side of this stream was of a boggy, or what was usually called a wet prairie; while on the northern and eastern it was more elevated and hilly. Not a house nor a sign of a dwelling was any where visible, the Indians, having their station at Piqua, (now Boston,) five miles west of Springfield, had neither wigwams nor tents, nor did they lay claim to the place only as a hunting ground. Bears, deer, turkeys and other wild game were found in abundance in this vicinity which caused it for several years to be a place of resort for the Indian as well as the white hunter.

Among the early settlers of Springfield and its vicinity, can properly be named David LOWRY, in 1795; John HUMPHREYS and James DEMINT, in 1799, Griffith FOOS, in 1801, Walter SMALLWOOD, in 1804.

Mr. Lowry, the year after his arrival here, (1796) assisted two men of the names of KREB and BROWN, in raising the first crop of corn in the neighborhood of Springfield. In the year 1800, he built the first flatboat "that ever navigated the Big Miami river from Dayton down." It was on this boat the me made the first shipment of provisions from this county to New Orleans. Mr. LOWRY also assisted in surveying the first public road from this place to Dayton, which was as early as 1801, or thereabouts.

Mr. John HUMPHREYS came to what is now Clark county with Gen. Simon KENTON, in the year already named. With them emigrated six families from Kentucky, and they made their settlement in the vicinity north of Springfield. In August of the same year, (1799) a fort was erected by this party on the ground then occupied by them. Fourteen cabins were raised and partly finished, as a blockhouse station.

Mr. James DEMINT, the proprietor of the land on which the original town plat was laid out, came with his family, and made the first settlement and built the first house in the present limits of this city. It was a log house, and was situated on the north bank of Buck creek, close to the west side of the Urbana road. He also built a small distillery a few years afterwards between the Urbana road and where Mr. WARD’s bridge now is. Mr. DEMINT was an emigrant from Kentucky, and is said to have been a very rough, fearless, though warm-hearted and hospitable man.

On March 17th, 1801, Mr. DEMINT, assisted by Mr. G. FOOS and Col. DOUGHERTY, a young surveyor commenced the work of laying out the first town plat. This town plat was bounded on the south by the section line, which runs east and west near the first alley south of and parallel to Main street; on the west by the first alley west of Market street. It extended north a little beyond North street, and east a few rods east of Spring street. The number of lots in contained was about eighty-two. The original names of the principal streets, as designated in this plat, have been changed; thus, for instance, what was then Main is now called Columbia street; and what is now termed Main, was then known as South street. It would seem from this plat to have been the intention of DEMINT that the town should be built on the bottom, near the creek. The title Springfield was suggested by Mrs. Simon KENTON to James DEMINT, on account of the many delightful and valuable springs found within and around the spot located for the town.

After Mr. DEMINT had finished laying out this plat, Mr. FOOS and part, having previously set out from Franklinton, Franklin county, Ohio, in search of a healthy location, and being highly pleased with the general aspect of the country, and concluding to settle here, returned to the Scioto valley for their families. In their removal to this place, they made the first wagon track into Springfield from that direction. They were four and a half days moving from Franklinton, (about forty miles,) and were obliged to cut their way through, there being neither a vestige of a road nor a sign of a bridge. In crossing the

Big Darby they were compelled to transport their goods upon horses, and then draw their wagons across with ropes, whilst some of the party swam by the sides of the wagons to prevent them from upsetting. Mr. FOOS, in the same year of his arrival, built the first house on the south side of Buck creek, and the first within the original town plat, directly opposite the present National hotel. It was a log house, and was opened by Mr. FOOS as a tavern, in June, 1801, and he continued it as such until 10th of May, 1814. This was the first public house, and Mr. FOOS the first landlord in this place.

The total number of houses at the date of Mr. SMALLWOOD’s arrival here, (1804) was about a dozen, all built of logs. They were situated as follows; one near the southeast corner of Main and Market streets, in which G. B. FIELDS had a cabinet shop, the first of the kind in Springfield; opposite was a log cooper shop owned by John REED; a log house on the northeast corner of said streets, which was occupied as a public house, at different times by sundry persons, the first of whom was an old colored man by the name of TONEY; another where Mr. RHINEHART’s row now stands, which was occupied by a Mr. STOWE, as a grocery establishment; another near the south east corner of Limestone and Main streets, a large two story log house near the southeast corner of High and Limestone streets, occupied at one time by the notorious Joel WALKER and which was frequently used in cases of alarms on account of the Indians, as a block house station; another large two story hewed log house, a few rods east of the present residence of Gen. ANTHONY; Col. DOUGHERTY’s house near the northeast corner of Main and Limestone streets; further down towards the public square was another, in which two Frenchmen, of the names of LeROY and DeGRAB kept the first dry goods store. Mr. FOOS’s tavern and one or two other completed the number.

At this period there was a small valley a few rods west of the present Presbyterian church, through which Mill run flowed, which was crossed by a foot log. The west bank of the run, for several rods back, was exceedingly muddy and miry. The east bank was quite steep. There was also quite a hill and one or two springs where Murray’s row is now situated. Near the National was quite another elevation, and a little further east and further down towards the brewery, was a slough, into which the streams from several springs emptied themselves.

The morals of the people were, at this time, in a comparatively low state. As is generally the case in all new settlements, the means of moral and intellectual improvement were few. Churches had not been built, schools had not been established, the voice of the minister was seldom heard. Drunkenness, street fighting, horse races and the like were customary scenes. The Sabbath, too, was spent by many in hunting, fishing and visiting. But as the town increased in population and business importance there was a gradual improvement in the morals of the people.

The first frame house in Springfield was built by Samuel SIMONTON, in 1806, on the well known Buckeye corner. On the sixth of May, of this year a tornado about thirty yards wide passed through this place, and so injured this frame house that the owner was obliged to reduce its contemplated height one story. It also slightly impaired a number of log cabins, and threw down several fences.

The first school was opened as early as 1806 by Nath’l PINKERED, in a log cabin, near the northeast corner of Main and Market streets.

The first preaching was held in Mr. FOOS’s tavern, as early as 1803, first by a Rev. THOMAS, as Baptist minister, and afterwards by ministers of other evangelical denominations. The first church organization was that of the Methodist Episcopal church, with between a dozen and eighteen members, in the fall of 1805, or, as Mr. FOOS thinks, in 1809. They held their meetings in PINKERED’s school house, and Revs. SAILE and COBLER, of the Miami (M.E.) circuit, which included Springfield within its bounds, were the first to minister unto them in holy things.

The first church edifice was built in 1811, by the religious denomination called "New Lights," or "Christians," on the south part of the lot now occupied by the hotel west of Mill run and south of Main street. It was a log building, and was a free place of worship for other religious denominations.

During the first few years in the early history of Springfield, the inhabitants were frequently disturbed by alarms of Indians coming against them with hostile intentions. At all such times the inhabitants assembled at some convenient log house and kept watch until the alarm subsided. In the fall of 1803, a white man named MYERS having been killed near Urbana, by one or more strolling Indians, and the assembling of a large number of tribes under TECUMSEH, quite an alarm was excited which caused some of the inhabitants to leave the place. Mr. FOOS’ tavern was turned into a fort and the citizens there assembled for protection. A demand being made for the murderers, a council was finally agree upon which was held in a grove a little north of the present National hotel, on the ground now occupied by Jas. WALLACE’s residence. TECUMSEH appeared at this council, and made a fluent speech. Gen. WHITEMAN, Maj. MORE, and Capt. WARD were also in attendance. It was clearly shown, at this council, that TECUMSEH and party were innocent of the murder of the man MYERS. The council terminated, and peace and security were guarantied to the inhabitants of the village. The Indians remained three days after the council closed, spending their time in games and various amusements in which TECUMSEH generally excelled.

In the war of 1812-13, there were frequent reports of the British and Indians about to make an attack on the town, which caused the inhabitants to assemble and make ready to meet the foe; but these reports in every case proved false. During the war large numbers of United States troops passed through this place. Among them was BALL’s squadron.

The first postmaster in this place, was John DOUGHERTY, who held the office in 1804, and our well known citizen, James R. WALLACE was the post boy who then brought great northwestern mail on horseback from Cincinnati to this village. From 1828 until the era of railroads, the mail was carried in four horse coaches. The present postmaster is I. HENDERSHOTT and the prominent mails are now received by railroads.

Springfield was the temporary seat of justice of Champaign county, about the year 1806 or 1807, and the first court, (which was a supreme court,) was held in a two story log house, which then stood near what is now the southeast corner of Limestone and High streets. The only case before this court then was that of Robert RENNICK for the murder of an Indian for whom a verdict of "not guilty," was rendered.

The first president judge of the court of common pleas for this county, was Frederick GRIMKE, Esq.; first associate judges, Daniel McKINNON, Jos. TATMAN and Jos. LAYTON; first sheriff, C. T. WARD, by appointment; first clerk of the court, John LAYTON, pro tem., who was followed by Thos. ARMSTRONG; first auditor, John DOUGHERTY; first recorder, David KIZER, who recorded the first warranty deed, April 16th, 1818; first treasurer, Jno. AMBLER; first prosecuting attorney, Henry BACON, pro. tem., who was followed by Geo. W. JEWETT; first master in chancery, Zephaniah PLATT; first commissioner, John BLACK; first county surveyor, William WILSON; first coroner, John HUNT.

The first justice of the peace elected in the township of Springfield, was Squire MULLHOLLAND, who resided west of town, near where A. REPERT now has his grist mill.

By an act of the state legislature in its session of 1817-18, the county of Clark, (named thus in honor of Gen. George Rogers CLARK,) was formed from the counties of Champaign, Madison and Greene, and this town, which was previously a part of Champaign county, be came the seat of justice for Clark.

On the 23d January, 1827, Springfield was incorporated as the "town of Springfield;" and Jas. L. TORBET, Esq., was first elected president and S. HENKLE Recorder, under its charter.

In February, 1850, a city charter was granted by the legislature, and a vote of the citizens, for its adoption or rejection, was taken on the first Monday of May following, which resulted in its adoption by a vote of 386 to 63. On the 14th of May, the following gentlemen were elected the first officers under the new charter:

Mayor--James M. HUNT, Esq.

Councilmen--Harvey VINAL, Alexander RAMSEY, John C. FILLER, C. D. McLAUGHLIN, John HOUSEHOLDER, Daniel V. HUBEN

Marshal--Martin CARY


The first mill erected within the present city limits, was a small grist by Jas. DEMINT , on the spot now occupied (sic) Dr. GILLETT’s mill. It was built in 1803, and would grind about five bushels of corn in twenty-four hours.

In 1807, Robert RENNICK built a flouring mill on Buck creek, where "BECHTLE’s old mill" was formerly situated. This was the first mill of any considerable benefit to the place.

In 1809 John LINGEL and Jacob COOK built a powder mill a little north of the present paper mill.

A cotton factory, built by Maddox FISHER, in 1838, took the place of DEMINT’s old mill, and continued operations a few years when it was changed into a flouring mill. The building of the factory seemed to have marked a turning point in the history of Springfield. Little business was doing, (there being but one store in the place at the time,) the inhabitants appeared discouraged--real estate depreciated, and hard times were complained of; but the building of this factory gave a new impetus to trade and improvements. Mr. FISHER was a man of some capital, and did much by his influence and wealth in the early improving of this place.

The present paper mill, on Mill run, near its junction with Buck creek was commenced about the 20th of August, 1927, by Messrs. BLOUNT, LOWRY and KILLS, and went into operation June 20, 1828. Messrs. KILLS & SONS became its proprietors in 1832.

On January 1st, 1840, Mr. James LEFFEL completed the first foundry in the vicinity of this city. It was situated near the Buck creek bridge, on the National road, west of Springfield; but being found inadequate for the increasing patronage, he commenced building the present foundry on Buck creek, in June, 1845, and finished it the following spring. Mr. LEFFEL has procured several patents for useful inventions; among them his "Buckeye cooking stove," "water wheel" and "lever jack."

In April, 1841, Messrs. S. and J. BARNETT commenced the erection of their large and substantial mill, at the north end of Limestone street. The entire gearing of this mill is composed of iron; it has fine run of burrs, and turns out over one hundred barrels of flour per day. The water power for this mill, constructed by Messrs. BARNETT, has a fall of 24 feet, and is sufficient at the lowest stages of water to propel eighteen run of stone. Quite a number of manufacturing establishments have been built on this power, viz. LEFFEL’s cotton mill in 1846, SMITH and BOUCHER’s oil mill in 1847; CHRISTIE and MUZZY’s flooring mill in 1847, RABBITTS and OLD’s woolen factory in 1847, PITTS’ machine shop in 1848, besides one or two saw mills. There are also two flouring mills on Mill run, one owned by FILLER and BOGGS and the other by Dr. GILLETT, and an extensive foundry carried on by HATCH and WHITELEY.


The first newspaper printed in Springfield, was "The Farmer" by a man named Geo. SMITH, in the year 1817. He had his office in a small log house, which stood on the southeast corner of the lot on which the Presbyterian church now stands. SMITH continued its publication about a year, when he sold it to Henry ROGERS, who changed the title of the paper to "The Farmers’ Advocate." Since then it has been continued under different proprietors and modifications of name, until coming into the possession of its present able proprietors, T. A. WICK and R. R. McNEMAR, under the style of T. A. WICK & Co., who now publish it weekly and tri-weekly, with the name of "The Republic." They have their office in King’s row, on Limestone street.

There was a religious paper, published the pamphlet form, by Rev. Saul HENKLE, called "The Gospel Trumpet," printed here in the same year of SMITH’s paper; but it was soon removed to Dayton, Ohio, where its publication was continued a short time.

A literary paper entitled "The Farmer’s Chronicle," made its appearance on January 1, 1833, published by the firm of STACY, NICHOLS & STACY, who continued it until June following, when it was merger into the "Western Pioneer."

In 1839 "The Mad River Democrat," was commenced by J. H. NICKLES. It advocated the principles of the democratic party, and was continued about a year, when its publication ceased.

"The Presbyterian of the West" a religious journal was first issued on September 22d, 1841, published and edited by Rev. J. A. DUNLAP and Rev. W. D. SMITH. They continued to print it here until the fall of 1845 when they removed their office to Cincinnati where it is now continued by Mr. H. C. McGREW and Rev. N. L. RICE.

A semi-monthly religious paper, entitled "The Gospel Herald" was first published in New Carlisle, in this county, from whence it was removed to Springfield in 1845, and is now printed in an office on Main street, nearly opposite the Anthony house.

A second democratic paper, called "The Union Democrat," and afterwards "The Clark County Democrat," made its first appearance in May, 1846, edited by John M. WEST, by whom it was continued until 1849, when the press and materials were sold to Messrs. MOSGROVE and DIAL, who removed the same to Urbana, Ohio, where "The Expositor" appeared as its successor. "The Expositer" is still printed in Urbana, under the direction of E. P. STEHPENSON and C. C. McLAUGHLIN, who have a business office in this city, on Limestone street, opposite the Springfield bank, up stairs.

On March 12, 1847, a neatly printed paper, advocating the principles of temperance, and bearing the title of "The Moss Covered Bucket ," was commenced by A. C. LAWRENCE and W. E. RUNYON; but was discontinued after the publication of six numbers, or in May following.

During the year of 1850, Geo. D. EMERSON and C. D. McLAUGHLIN built and fitted up an extensive book and job printing office of High street, between Main and Market, and in November of the same year, Mr. EMERSON commenced the publication of the "Mad River Valley Gazette," which has lately been purchased by Mr. I. THOMAS, its former editor, who continues its regular issue at the office where it was first started. The building has passed into the hands of Dr. McLAUGHLIN, of Tremont, and is now occupied by E. P. STEPHENSON, John W. KEES and C. D. McLAUGHLIN, as book and job printing office.


The Methodists, who organization we have already noticed, head the list of those established here. They built their edifice in 1814, on the northwest corner of Market and North streets, where it now remains, occupied as a dwelling. In 1834, they built their second or present church on the southeast corner of Market and Columbia streets. Present number of members of this church is near four hundred. Rev. Granville MOODY pastor.

First Presbyterian -- Main street, between Market and Centre. Organized in July, 1817, with twenty-eight members, under the charge of Rev. Archibold STEELE. Build their first edifice in 1828, and their second and present in 1848. Present number of members, about three hundred. Rev. N. C. BURT, pastor.

Associate Reform Presbyterian -- Limestone street, between High and Washington. Organized in 1819 with twelve members, under the pastoral charge of Rev. John STEELE. Built their first church in 1820-21, which is now owned by the African denomination; and their second and present edifice, in 1838. Present number of members, about one hundred and twenty. Rev. R. W. HENRY, pastor.

Methodist Protestant --Organized in 1828, with about thirty members, most of whom were formerly united with the Episcopal Methodists. Rev. Saul HENKLE first supplied them with preaching. In 1829 they built a small brick church on North street, between Limestone and Spring. This they sold in 1849, and are now building a house of public worship on Washington street between Market and Center. Present number of members about forty-six. Present pastor, C. F. WILLIAMS.

Episcopal -- Southwest corner of Limestone and High streets. Organized in 1834, by Rev. Alexander VARIAN. Built their present edifice in 1842. Present number of members about sixty. Rev. C. ROBBINS, pastor.

First Baptist -- Northeast corner of Limestone and High streets. Organized in the winter of 1835-36 with thirteen members. Eld. E. D. OWEN their first pastor. Built first and present edifice in 1845 and finished it in 1852. Present number of members about one hundred and thirty. Rev. Jos. BROWN, pastor.

Universalist -- Washington street, between Center and Factory. Organized n June, 1836, with twenty-six members. Rev. Geo. MESSENGER their first minister. Built their first and present edifice in 1837.

Lutheran -- Northeast corner of Factory and High streets. Organized in 1841, with nineteen members, under the pastoral charge of Rev. John LEHMAN. Their present edifice was their first, and erected in 1845 and finished in 1850. Present number of members near one hundred and fifty. Rev. Prof. F. W. CONRAD, pastor.

German Lutherans -- St. John’s Congregation -- corner of Walnut alley and Columbia street. Organized in 1845, by Rev. J. SCLADERMUNDT. Built their present edifice in 1850. Present number of members about one hundred. Rev. Mr. STROUD, present minister.

High Street Methodist Episcopal -- adjoining the High School. Organized in 1849, with about one hundred and twenty members, a branch from the

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Columbia Street Church. Built the present edifice in 1850, and dedicated it July 27, 1851. Present number of members about one hundred and eighty. Rev. J. W. WEAKLY, pastor.

Catholic -- High street, near Spring. Built their present edifice in 1850 - dedicated it in December, 1850. Rev. M. HOWARD, pastor.

Congregational -- Center street, between High and Main. Organized in April, 1850, with thirty-nine members under the pastoral charge of Rev. J. C. WHITE, the present pastor. Built their present edifice in 1851. Present number of members fifty-three.


Court House. -- The present court house, on the northwest corner of Limestone and Columbia streets, or rather what is designated as the public square of the old town plat, was built in 1821 or 1822. After its completion, the public offices were kept in it until the year 1831, when suitable buildings were erected on the public square for their accommodation. The bell in the cupalo of the court house, was the first in the place.

A market house, on the present site, was built in the center of Market street, and on the south side of High street, in the year 1830 or 1831. In 1848 the council sold this building public sale, and it was removed to make room for the present new market house and City hall. This latter building is of brick, two stories high about 120 feet in length, 42 feet wide, and cost about $7800, including the bell. The lower part, or first story furnishes ample room for market purposes, is well paved with brick, contains stalls, and can be comfortably heated during cold weather. The upper part, a second story, is divided into a small yet convenient council chamber, and a large hall suitable for all kinds of exhibitions and public assemblies.

Union Hall. -- this large and handsome building was erected in 1850, by the different orders of Odd Fellows and Masons of this place. It is three stories high. The lower story is divided into four large store rooms and a main entrance to the upper apartments. The second story furnishes a large hall for public entertainments, and two of three other large rooms. The third story is occupied with halls for the different orders to whom the building belongs.

Warehouses. -- Murray’s row, on the northeast corner of Main and Limestone streets, and "Linn’s building," now known as "Rinehart’s row," were immediately rebuilt after being destroyed by the fire of February 21st, 1840. King’s row, on Limestone street, was built in 1847.

Warehouses. -- The warehouses formerly occupied by HARRISON & Co. And A. MATTOX, at the south end of Limestone street, were built in 1847; FANKHOUSE’s on the corner of Market and Washington streets, in 1850; Peter MURRAY’s on the corner of Limestone and Washington, in 1851. The warehouses for the use of the Little Miami and Mad river & Lake Erie railroad companies, were built the year of the completion of those roads to this place.

There has also been a new jail built on an eminence, opposite the Catholic Church the past year, and the erection of a new court house with public county offices, on the same beautiful site, is also contemplated.

O. C. High School. -- The present High School building was erected in 1834 by subscription of the citizens, each subscriber owning a certain share according to the amount subscribed. The building is a large and substantial edifice, three stories high situated on High street, on an eminence commanding a fine view of the town and surrounding country. In November following M. G. WILLIAMS took charge of the school, in whose care in continued for several years. During the winter of 1840-41, this institution passed into the control of the Ohio M. E. Conference, under whose superintendence it was opened by Rev. Mr. GONZALES. He was followed by Rev. C. ROBBINS, present pastor of the Episcopal Church. Mr. ROBBINS was followed by Rev. S. HOWARD, who was assisted by E. G. DIAL, Prof. of languages. Soon after Mr. H. became the principal, the school was divided into two departments -- male and female -- both occupying the same building. In 1849, Mr. DIAL resigned his professorship, and Rev. Thomas HARRISON was appointed in his place. The following are the names of the present faculty: Rev. Solomon HOWARD, A.M., principal, and professor of mathematics and ancient languages; Rev. Thomas HARRISON, professor of natural philosophy, chemistry and English branches; Mrs. Louisa MILLIKIN, preceptress, and instructress in French; Miss Sarah BRESCUP, teacher of music on the piano; Miss Martha MARTIN, teacher in preparatory department. "The institution, under its present organization, has been steadily advancing during the last six years, and its present condition is highly encouraging and full of promise."

Wittenberg College was chartered by the legislature of Ohio, in the winter of 1844-45, and is located on a tract of land of twenty-five acres, lying north of Springfield. "It has an elevated site supplied with good water, finely shaded by sugar and other forest trees, and presenting a fine landscape in every direction." The grammar school of this institution was opened in the basement of the Lutheran Church, November 3, 1845, under the superintendence of the deceased and lamented Rev. Ezra KELLER, D.D.., (who was the founder of the institution,) assisted by J. WELTY, professor of mathematics, and P. G. SAUERWEIN, professor of languages. The number of pupils present the first day was eight, which increased to thirty-six before the session closed. The first public exhibition of the students was on the evening of April 7, 1846, in the Presbyterian Church. In the summer of 1846, the east wing of the college building was erected and in 1850, the main college building with the west wing, was built, and the edifice now stands complete -- a magnificent structure. There are two literary societies connected with this institution -- one, the "Exelsior," organized November 20, 1845; the other, the "Philosopohian," organized July 4 1846. These societies are each possessed of a neatly furnished hall in the college building, and each a library of two or

three thousand volumes for the use of its members. The different libraries of the institution contain about eight thousand volumes. The institution is now well supplied with cabinets and various chemical and philosophical apparatus, and its prosperity under its present talented and efficient faculty, is truly encouraging.

Female Seminary. -- For a number of years prior to the location of this institution, there were select schools for females, kept by different teachers at different times. Among the first who held a school of this character, was Miss Eunice STRONG, as early as 1831. But the present female seminary was located in Springfield in the fall of 1848, by the Miami Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church. The school was commenced under the direction of Rev. J. F. SAWYER, in September of this year. A charter was obtained from the legislature in the winter of 1848-49. In December 1848, Rev. J. F. SAWYER, in consequence of ill health, tendered his resignation, and in February, 1849 Re. Jonathan EDWARDS took charge of the school, and continued his connection with it until August 1851, when he resigned, having received and accepted a call from a Presbyterian Church in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The present principal is J. Allison SMITH, formerly principal of an academy in Lebanon, Ohio. During the past year, an association was formed to purchase a site and erect a building for this institution. This company has bought of Dr. RODGERS four acres of the beautiful premises on the north side of Buck creek, near the Urbana road, where they have commenced the erection of a handsome edifice, which the contemplate finishing in time for the school to enter at its next fall session. The school is now in a prosperous and flourishing condition, with bright prospects for the future.

Greenway Boarding School for Boys. -- The cut in the front part of this book represents the building recently erected for, and now occupied by this school. The proprietor and instructor is the Rev. Chandler ROBBINS, A.M.. The school was commenced by him about four years since, and has been in successful operation ever since that time. The number of pupils is limited, and all must board in the family of the instructor. The following extract from the last annual circular will show the design of the school and its peculiar character. "The plan was adopted by the proprietor, in order to counteract what he deems a serious error in the ordinary modes of education. The cultivation of the intellect alone appears, in general, to be regarded as education. To this one object almost the entire attention of teachers in our larger schools is devoted. Human happiness depends not so much upon mental acquisitions, as upon the physical health the moral character and the proper cultivation of the affections. The mental discipline of youth, is attained but too often at the expense of health and morality. The attachments of home are frequently made, in large schools, subject of ridicule; and the minds of the young are impressed with the idea that to acknowledge and obey maternal influence in unmanly.

The Greenway School was designed to remedy this evil. Its purpose is to throw a safeguard around those who enter its precincts, during the important period in which their faculties are most rapidly developing -- to cherish in them domestic affections -- to combine in their training the advantages of systematic school discipline, with the gentle and refining influences of home education and the promotion of a health physical development."

The buildings are beautifully situated, on an eminence each of the town, about three-fourths of a mile from the Anthony House. The grounds are ample. It is the design of Mr. ROBBINS to introduce so much a military discipline in his present plan as shall secure regular and healthy exercise, order, system and subordination.

Springfield is also supplied with ten common schools, which are numerously attended and well conducted; but she still lacks suitable school houses.


Springfield Lyceum. Organized November 22, 1832. This institution was well sustained until 1849, when it was re-organized under new auspices. A large and convenient reading room was opened in Rhinehart’s row, where the members of the society have access to a library of several hundred volumes, and different newspapers and periodicals. The members pay three dollars per year for the privileges and benefits arising from the institution. A course of lectures was commenced December, 1849, and have been continued during the winter season to the present time, with good attendance and with much profit. The present officers are, R. R. McNEMAR, president; Geo. H. FREY, secretary; E. M. DOTY, librarian.

Masons. -- Clark lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 101. Instituted February, 1848 -- meets the second and fourth Tuesday evenings of every month, in Union hall on Market street.

Springfield chapter -- Instituted December, 1851 -- meets first and third Monday evenings of each month, in the hall of Clark lodge.

Odd Fellows. -- Springfield lodge No. 33 -- instituted October 24 1844 -- meets every Thursday evening in Union hall, Market street.

Ephraim lodge -- instituted February 25 1850 -- meets every Friday night, in Union hall, Market street.

Mad River Encampment -- instituted December 3 1843 -- meets the first and third Tuesday evenings of every month Union hall, Market street.

Temperance Societies -- Langley division -- instituted March 5 1845 -- meets every Monday evening in King’s building Main street third story.

Temple of Honor -- instituted November 5, 1847 -- meets the first and third Friday evenings of every month, in King’s building third story, entrance on Main street.

Social Degree -- instituted December 10 1850 -- meets the first and third Tuesday evenings of every month Kings’s building, Main street.

Ancient Order of Perdons. -- Council No. 1 -- instituted in Springfield October 5, 1850 at midnight, by a dispensation granted from the Enchanted Circle, of Heidleburg, Germany to the following gentlemen, viz: E. C. MASON, C. F. KNOTT, George HATCH, Henry SNYDER, J. B. SHEPHERD, John STOUT, E. A. WILLIAMS. Beside Subordinate Council, No. 1, the Enchanted Circle for

the west is located in the city -- consisting of the following members, viz: Edwin C. MASON, Joshua B. SHEPHERD, Henry SNYDER, George HATCH, Cyrus F. KNOTT, E. A. WILLIAMS. The annual incantation is celebrated on the 14th of August, at midnight. Council No. 1 meets every Saturday evening, in their halls, third story of King’s building, corner Main and Limestone streets.

Clark county branch of the Ohio State Medical Society -- organized in May 30, 1850 -- meets on the first Tuesdays in May, November and February; the May meeting to be considered the annual meeting. Present officers are Dr. R. HOUSTON, president; Dr.’s B. GILLETT and G. H. BUNYAN ice presidents; Dr. E. M. BUCKINGHAM, secretary and Dr. R. RODGERS, treasurer.


Mad River Valley Branch of the State bank, north side of Main street, between Limestone and Market streets. Capital, $100,000 all paid in. Levi RINEHART, president; J. T. CLAYPOLE cashier. Commenced operations Jan., 1847.

The Springfield Bank. Limestone stret near corner of Main and Limestone streets. Oliver CLARK president; W. T. McMEANS, cashier. This bank was organized under the new banking law, and commenced operations June, 1851.


Little Miami Railroad, connecting Springfield with Xenia, Spring Valley, Foster’s Crossings, and Cincinnati. Whole distance, eighty-four miles. Completed August 12 1846, enter the city of Jefferson street. Office south end of Limestone street. Wm. WRIGHT, agent.

Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad, connecting Springfield with Sandusky city and the lakes. Whole distance, one hundred and thirty-four miles. Completed September 2 1848. Enter the eastern part of the city. Office, south end of Washington street. J. B. NORRIS, agent.

Springfield & Dayton Railroad and connecting Springfield with the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railroad -- a continuation of the Mad River & Lake Erie railroad to Dayton. Whole distance, twenty-five miles. Completed January 21 1851. Enters the city of Washington street. Office, depot of the Mad River and Lake Erie railroad.

Springfield & Pittsburgh Railroad -- chartered in 1851. Connects Springfield with Marysville Delaware Mt. Vernon and Pittsburgh. Under contract form Springfield to Marysville. Enters the eastern part of the city. Charles ANTHONY president and H. B. WILSON, secretary. Office, in Anthony’s building, corner of Main and Market streets.

Springfield & london railroad -- chartered in 1848. Connects Springfield with London, Madison county and there with the Columbus & Xenia railroad. Whole distance eighteen miles -- all under contract. Enters the southeastern portion of the city. Present office, Limestone street, over the Springfield bank. Officers are William WHITELEY president, E. G. DIAL, secretary.


The National road was completed to Springfield, in 1839. There are also two good pike roads leading to Dayton one through Enon and Fairfield; the other, called the Valley pike, through Medway. Besides, the Clark and Miami turnpike, connecting Springfield with Troy whole distance twenty-one miles; nearly completed; and the Clark and Union turnpike, chartered in 1847, connecting Springfield with Mechanicsburg and Marysville finished to the former place. There has also been charters granted for a turnpike leading from Springfield to New Carlisle and Troy and Selma to Springfield.


Chartered March 8 1849 -- organized September 19, 1849. Capital about $5000. Present officers, Charles ANTHONY president Jas. S. GOODE secretary. Board of directors, Charles ANTHONY Wm. FOOS, Peter MURRAY, T. J. KINDLEBARGER and Joshua GORE. The city was first lit with gas on the eve of April 4, 1850.

1820 510 (handwritten) 
 In 1840 was 2094 persons
In 1828 was 935 persons
In 1850 was 5109 persons
In 1830 was 1080 persons
In 1852 was 5567 persons